Two of the immediate metabolites of testosterone, 5α-DHT and estradiol, are biologically important and can be formed both in the liver and in extrahepatic tissues.[151] Approximately 5 to 7% of testosterone is converted by 5α-reductase into 5α-DHT, with circulating levels of 5α-DHT about 10% of those of testosterone, and approximately 0.3% of testosterone is converted into estradiol by aromatase.[2][151][157][158] 5α-Reductase is highly expressed in the male reproductive organs (including the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and epididymides),[159] skin, hair follicles, and brain[160] and aromatase is highly expressed in adipose tissue, bone, and the brain.[161][162] As much as 90% of testosterone is converted into 5α-DHT in so-called androgenic tissues with high 5α-reductase expression,[152] and due to the several-fold greater potency of 5α-DHT as an AR agonist relative to testosterone,[163] it has been estimated that the effects of testosterone are potentiated 2- to 3-fold in such tissues.[164]
All the active substances available in TestoGen are fully natural. And their efficacy and safety is science-backed. So, if you don’t have individual sensitivity to the supplement ingredients and purchase the product directly from the manufacturer instead of purchasing from unknown suppliers, the likelihood of side effects during the supplementation is minimal. And the customer feedback proves this.
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.

Studies have demonstrated reduced testosterone levels in men with heart failure as well as other endocrine changes (Tappler and Katz 1979; Kontoleon et al 2003). Treatment of cardiac failure with chronic mechanical circulatory support normalizes many of these changes, including testosterone levels (Noirhomme et al 1999). More recently, two double-blind randomized controlled trials of testosterone treatment for men with low or low-normal serum testosterone levels and heart failure have shown improvements in exercise capacity and symptoms (Pugh et al 2004; Malkin et al 2006). The mechanism of these benefits is currently unclear, although a study of the acute effects of buccal testosterone given to men with chronic cardiac failure under invasive monitoring showed that testosterone increased cardiac index and reduced systemic vascular resistance (Pugh et al 2003). Testosterone may prove useful in the management of cardiac failure but further research is needed.

In many of the studies we found, those who saw the most improvement in health, testosterone, or muscle gain were those with existing nutrient or vitamin deficiencies. This means that some gains may be due more to dietary changes and generally restoring nutrient and vitamin levels than any one magic ingredient, but also that making sure your diet includes healthy amounts of nutrients should be your first step.

Likewise, the amino acids in a protein-rich diet play a big role in both testosterone and muscle growth. As Chris Lockwood, Ph.D., explains, "When combined with training, which increases the sensitivity of androgen receptors, and the consumption of essential amino acids necessary to support protein synthesis, the effects of testosterone on muscle and performance is significantly amplified."[3,4]
Boron, a mineral, keeps the cell walls of plants strong. Eating dried fruits and nuts gives you abundant amounts of boron. You can also take boron supplements. It's important to keep your daily boron intake at less than 20 mg, however, according to a current factsheet available from the U.S. National Library of Medicine. High doses of boron can cause serious side effects such as skin inflammation and peeling, irritability, tremors or depression.
Testosterone has two major effects on bones: (a) through conversion to estradiol by way of the enzyme, aromatase, testosterone inhibits osteoclastic activity and hence bone resorption; and (b) through conversion to DHT via 5-α-reductase, it stimulates osteoblastic activity and so enhances the laying down of bone (Tivesten et al 2004; Davey and Morris 2005). Hypogonadal men are at risk for the development of osteopenia or osteoporosis and hence for subsequent fracture (Fink et al 2006). About one-third of all osteoporotic hip fractures occur in men and the risk of any osteoporotic fracture in men over 50 is as high as 25 percent (Seeman 1997; Adler 2006). Although treatment with testosterone in hypogonadal men increases bone mineral density (Katznelson et al 1996), it has not yet been established that this results in a reduction in fracture rate.

You should also know that a lot of people are deficient in Vitamin D. In the USA & many other western regions in the world, vitamin D deficiency is at epidemic proportions. The best way to increase your D levels is sun exposure. You only need 20-30 minutes of exposure to a large amount of skin (i.e., take your shirt off and go for a walk during the day).
The chemical synthesis of testosterone from cholesterol was achieved in August that year by Butenandt and Hanisch.[183] Only a week later, the Ciba group in Zurich, Leopold Ruzicka (1887–1976) and A. Wettstein, published their synthesis of testosterone.[184] These independent partial syntheses of testosterone from a cholesterol base earned both Butenandt and Ruzicka the joint 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[182][185] Testosterone was identified as 17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (C19H28O2), a solid polycyclic alcohol with a hydroxyl group at the 17th carbon atom. This also made it obvious that additional modifications on the synthesized testosterone could be made, i.e., esterification and alkylation.
Erectile dysfunction is a common finding in the aging male. A prevalence of over 70% was found in men older than 70 in a recent cross-sectional study (Ponholzer et al 2005). Treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors is proven to be effective for the majority of men but some do not respond (Shabsigh and Anastasiadis 2003). The condition is multi-factorial, with contributions from emotional, vascular, neurological and pharmacological factors. The concept of erectile dysfunction as a vascular disease is particularly interesting in view of the evidence presented above, linking testosterone to atherosclerosis and describing its action as a vasodilator.
Dark chocolate contains zinc that boosts testosterone levels and magnesium which hinders estrogen levels. Dark chocolates release the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Dopamine, apart from being a natural painkiller, enhances your mood and makes you feel better. Dark chocolate contains less sugar and four times the fiber as compared to milk chocolates. But beware, chocolates can be addictive according to a study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

When you’re under stress (be it from lack of sleep, workplace stress, emotional stress, stress from a bad diet, overtraining etc.), your body releases cortisol. Cortisol blunts the effects of testosterone (47), which makes sense from an evolutionary point of view – if we were stressed as cavemen chances are it was a life or death situation – not running late to a meeting - in this state (i.e. running from a lion) the body wouldn’t care if you couldn’t get it up, there was more to worry about!


I recommend using a trans-mucosal DHEA cream. Applying it to the rectum or if you are a a woman, your vagina, will allow the mucous epithelial membranes that line your mucosa to perform effective absorption. These membranes regulate absorption and inhibit the production of unwanted metabolites of DHEA. I personally apply 50 milligrams of trans-rectal DHEA cream twice a day – this has improved my own testosterone levels significantly. However, please note that I do NOT recommend prolonged supplementation of hormones. Doing so can trick your body into halting its own DHEA production and may cause your adrenals to become seriously impaired down.

The ingredients in testosterone supplements may be different. Some testosterone supplements contain zinc and magnesium. They increase testosterone levels in men who exercise. Some other testosterone supplements have hormones like DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and pregnenolone. They help with making new testosterone and may help improve the ability to have an erection. But it doesn't seem to be helpful if the problem with erections is caused by diabetes or nerve disorders. Some testosterone booster supplements contain natural ingredients like herbs and botanicals. They may increase testosterone by increasing a hormone produced by the brain, which signals the testicles to produce more testosterone. In addition, others work by releasing bound testosterone, so it is in a form the body can use. Studies do not provide strong evidence that women benefit from taking these supplements. You need to talk to your doctor or pharmacist before starting a testosterone booster supplement. Discuss your medical history and current prescribed medications, over the counter medications, and any supplements that you are taking. Your doctor or pharmacist can tell you if a testosterone booster supplement is right for you. Once you know if a testosterone booster supplement is right for you, Walgreens has a variety of testosterone booster supplements to choose from and they come in different forms like tablets, capsules or gels.
The chemical synthesis of testosterone from cholesterol was achieved in August that year by Butenandt and Hanisch.[183] Only a week later, the Ciba group in Zurich, Leopold Ruzicka (1887–1976) and A. Wettstein, published their synthesis of testosterone.[184] These independent partial syntheses of testosterone from a cholesterol base earned both Butenandt and Ruzicka the joint 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[182][185] Testosterone was identified as 17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (C19H28O2), a solid polycyclic alcohol with a hydroxyl group at the 17th carbon atom. This also made it obvious that additional modifications on the synthesized testosterone could be made, i.e., esterification and alkylation.
Italiano: Aumentare Naturalmente i Livelli di Testosterone (per Adolescenti), Español: elevar los niveles de testosterona de forma natural (para chicos adolescentes), Русский: повысить уровень тестостерона естественными способами (советы для подростков), Português: Aumentar Naturalmente os Níveis de Testosterona Em Adolescentes, Français: augmenter naturellement son taux de testostérone (pour les adolescents), Deutsch: Testosteronwerte bei männlichen Teenagern auf natürliche Weise steigern, Bahasa Indonesia: Meningkatkan Testosteron secara Alami (Remaja Pria)
Transdermal preparations of testosterone utilize the fact that the skin readily absorbs steroid hormones. Initial transdermal preparations took the form of scrotal patches with testosterone loaded on to a membranous patch. Absorption from the scrotal skin was particularly good and physiological levels of testosterone with diurnal variation were reliably attained. The scrotal patches are now rarely used because they require regular shaving or clipping of scrotal hair and because they produce rather high levels of dihydrotestosterone compared to testosterone (Behre et al 1999). Subsequently, non-scrotal patches were developed but the absorptive capacity of non-scrotal skin is much lower, so these patches contain additional chemicals which enhance absorption. The non-scrotal skin patches produce physiological testosterone levels without supraphysiological dihydrotestosterone levels. Unfortunately, the patches produce a high rate of local skin reactions often leading to discontinuation (Parker and Armitage 1999). In the last few years, transdermal testosterone gel preparations have become available. These require daily application by patients and produce steady state physiological testosterone levels within a few days in most patients (Swerdloff et al 2000; Steidle et al 2003). The advantages compared with testosterone patches include invisibility, reduced skin irritation and the ability to adjust dosage, but concerns about transfer to women and children on close skin contact necessitate showering after application or coverage with clothes.

Spinach/Spring Salad Mix. This was the base of my salad. I used Organic Girl Greens from Whole Foods. Yeah, I know. The base of my Man Salad came from a company called Organic Girl. Spinach and other leafy green vegetables contain minerals like magnesium and zinc, which have been shown to aid in testosterone production (study on magnesium, and another; study on zinc)
Pellets. Your doctor will place the testosterone pellets under the skin of your upper hip or buttocks. Your doctor will give a shot of local anesthesia to numb your skin, then make a small cut and place the pellets inside the fatty tissues underneath your skin. This medication dissolves slowly and is released over about 3-6 months, depending on the number of pellets. 
All the active substances available in TestoGen are fully natural. And their efficacy and safety is science-backed. So, if you don’t have individual sensitivity to the supplement ingredients and purchase the product directly from the manufacturer instead of purchasing from unknown suppliers, the likelihood of side effects during the supplementation is minimal. And the customer feedback proves this.
However, some of these signs and symptoms can be caused by factors other than low testosterone, including medication side effects, thyroid problems, depression and excessive alcohol use. There are also conditions, such as obstructive sleep apnea, that might affect testosterone levels. Once these conditions are identified and treated, testosterone typically will return to a normal level.
February 22, 2018 - Since our last review, the manufacturers of two of our top picks have gone out of business, and some new testosterone boosters have entered the arena. We’ve updated this review to evaluate the current field of testosterone supplements, as well as beef up analysis on what kind of results you can expect from t-boosters. Our only current top pick, Beast Sports Nutrition, is a new player in the industry that contains all four of the ingredients with studies showing a positive effect on testosterone.
Most studies support a link between adult criminality and testosterone, although the relationship is modest if examined separately for each sex. Nearly all studies of juvenile delinquency and testosterone are not significant. Most studies have also found testosterone to be associated with behaviors or personality traits linked with criminality such as antisocial behavior and alcoholism. Many studies have also been done on the relationship between more general aggressive behavior/feelings and testosterone. About half the studies have found a relationship and about half no relationship.[66]
Studies also show a consistent negative correlation of testosterone with blood pressure (Barrett-Connor and Khaw 1988; Khaw and Barrett-Connor 1988; Svartberg, von Muhlen, Schirmer et al 2004). Data specific to the ageing male population suggests that this relationship is particularly powerful for systolic hypertension (Fogari et al 2005). Interventional trials have not found a significant effect of testosterone replacement on blood pressure (Kapoor et al 2006).
It is hard to know how many men among us have TD, although data suggest that overall about 2.1% (about 2 men in every 100) may have TD. As few as 1% of younger men may have TD, while as many as 50% of men over 80 years old may have TD. People who study the condition often use different cut-off points for the numbers, so you may hear different numbers being stated.
Intracoronary artery infusion of testosterone causes significant coronary artery dilatation and not constriction as previously thought (Webb et al 1999). When degree of coronary obstruction is assessed by angiography, there is a direct relationship between degree of coronary artery narrowing and reduced testosterone levels (Phillips et al 1994). Men with low testosterone levels have been observed to have: premature atherosclerosis, increased visceral adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia, and other risk factors for myocardial infarction (Phillips 2005). Insulin resistance has been shown to be associated with a decrease in Leydig cell secretion of testosterone (Pitteloud et al 2005). Muller and colleagues suggest that low endogenous total testosterone and SHBG levels increase the risk of metabolic syndrome in aging and aged men. They demonstrated that low levels of testosterone are related to lower insulin sensitivity and higher fasting insulin levels (Muller et al 2005). These authors speculate that testosterone might play a protective role in the development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in aging men.

Regardless of the method of testosterone treatment chosen, patients will require regular monitoring during the first year of treatment in order to monitor clinical response to testosterone, testosterone levels and adverse effects, including prostate cancer (see Table 2). It is recommended that patients should be reviewed at least every three months during this time. Once treatment has been established, less frequent review is appropriate but the care of the patient should be the responsibility of an appropriately trained specialist with sufficient experience of managing patients treated with testosterone.
Sleep apnea is another frequently listed contraindication to testosterone treatment. There have been a few reports of the development, or worsening, of sleep apnea during testosterone therapy (Matsumoto et al 1985) but sleep apnea is actually associated with lower serum testosterone levels (Luboshitzky et al 2002). The reduction in fat mass during treatment with testosterone could potentially be beneficial for sleep apnea, so many specialists will still consider patients for treatment with appropriate monitoring. It is wise to take a clinical history for sleep apnea during testosterone treatment in all men and perform sleep studies in those who develop symptoms.
Cross-sectional studies have not shown raised testosterone levels at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer, and in fact, low testosterone at the time of diagnosis has been linked with more locally aggressive and malignant tumors (Massengill et al 2003; Imamoto et al 2005; Isom-Batz et al 2005). This may reflect loss of hormone related control of the tumor or the effect of a more aggressive tumor in decreasing testosterone levels. One study found that 14% of hypogonadal men, with normal digital rectal examination and PSA levels, had histological prostate cancer on biopsy. It is possible that low androgen levels masked the usual evidence of prostate cancer in this population (Morgentaler et al 1996). Most longitudinal studies have not shown a correlation between testosterone levels and the future development of prostate cancer (Carter et al 1995; Heikkila et al 1999; Stattin et al 2004) but a recent study did find a positive association (Parsons et al 2005). Interpretation of such data requires care, as the presentation of prostate cancer could be altered or delayed in patients with lower testosterone levels.
Reordering. My husband has been very tired (lazy), but unable to sleep, and quickly started gaining a belly. I give him his vitamins so he never knows what he is taking. Only 3 days after taking this, he played an entire soccer game and commented on how much more energy he had and how he just feels better all around. I then told him what he was taking. He has continued taking and he is like his old self again. His energy has not only come back on the soccer field, but in other areas, as well.

The regulation of testosterone production is tightly controlled to maintain normal levels in blood, although levels are usually highest in the morning and fall after that. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are important in controlling the amount of testosterone produced by the testes. In response to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland produces luteinising hormone which travels in the bloodstream to the gonads and stimulates the production and release of testosterone.
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