Testosterone is a sex hormone that plays important roles in the body. In men, it’s thought to regulate sex drive (libido), bone mass, fat distribution, muscle mass and strength, and the production of red blood cells and sperm. A small amount of circulating testosterone is converted to estradiol, a form of estrogen. As men age, they often make less testosterone, and so they produce less estradiol as well. Thus, changes often attributed to testosterone deficiency might be partly or entirely due to the accompanying decline in estradiol.

Oral/buccal (by mouth). The buccal dose comes in a patch that you place above your incisor (canine or "eyetooth"). The medication looks like a tablet but you should not chew or swallow it. The drug is released over 12 hours. This method has fewer harmful side effects on the liver than if the drug is swallowed, but it may cause headaches or cause irritation where you place it.


This causes your body to burn fat for the next 36 hours to replace your body’s vital energy stores. It addition to increasing your T-levels, it can help burn between 3–9 times more fat, lower your resting heart rate, lower blood pressure, keep your brain young by increasing circulation, and aids in detoxification by stimulating the lymphatic system.

Intramuscular testosterone injections were first used around fifty years ago. Commercially available preparations contain testosterone esters in an oily vehicle. Esterification is designed to retard the release of testosterone from the depot site into the blood because the half life of unmodified testosterone would be very short. For many years intramuscular preparations were the most commonly used testosterone therapy and this is still the case in some centers. Pain can occur at injection sites, but the injections are generally well tolerated and free of major side effects. Until recently, the available intramuscular injections were designed for use at a frequency of between weekly and once every four weeks. These preparations are the cheapest mode of testosterone treatment available, but often cause supraphysiological testosterone levels in the days immediately following injection and/or low trough levels prior to the next injection during which time the symptoms of hypogonadism may return (Nieschlag et al 1976). More recently, a commercial preparation of testosterone undecanoate for intramuscular injection has become available. This has a much longer half life and produces testosterone levels in the physiological range throughout each treatment cycle (Schubert et al 2004). The usual dose frequency is once every three months. This is much more convenient for patients but does not allow prompt cessation of treatment if a contraindication to testosterone develops. The most common example of this would be prostate cancer and it has therefore been suggested that shorter acting testosterone preparations should preferably used for treating older patients (Nieschlag et al 2005). Similar considerations apply to the use of subcutaneous implants which take the form of cylindrical pellets injected under the skin of the abdominal wall and steadily release testosterone to provide physiological testosterone levels for up to six months. Problems also include pellet extrusion and infection (Handelsman et al 1997).
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Most people associate testosterone with facial hair, gigantic muscles & illegal steroids.  Naturally produced testosterone plays a very important role in male/female metabolic function.  Lowered testosterone is a chronic epidemic that is threatening lives all around the world.  This article will go over 12 ways to boost testosterone levels naturally through healthy lifestyle measures.
Some of the effects of testosterone treatment are well recognised and it seems clear that testosterone treatment for aging hypogonadal men can be expected to increase lean body mass, decrease visceral fat mass, increase bone mineral density and decrease total cholesterol. Beneficial effects have been seen in many trials on other parameters such as glycemic control in diabetes, erectile dysfunction, cardiovascular risk factors, angina, mood and cognition. These potentially important effects require confirmation in larger clinical trials. Indeed, it is apparent that longer duration randomized controlled trials of testosterone treatment in large numbers of men are needed to confirm the effects of testosterone on many aspects of aging male health including cardiovascular health, psychiatric health, prostate cancer and functional capacity. In the absence of such studies, it is necessary to balance risk and benefit on the best available data. At the present time the data supports the treatment of hypogonadal men with testosterone to normalize testosterone levels and improve symptoms. Most men with hypogonadism do not have a contraindication to treatment, but it is important to monitor for adverse consequences including prostate complications and polycythemia.

A blood test may not be enough to determine your levels, because testosterone levels can fluctuate during the day. Once you determine that you do have low levels, there are a number of options to take. There are synthetic and bioidentical testosterone products out on the market, but I advise using bioidentical hormones like DHEA. DHEA is a hormone secreted by your adrenal glands. This substance is the most abundant precursor hormone in the human body. It is crucial for the creation of vital hormones, including testosterone and other sex hormones.
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The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression".[78][79] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.[78] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game.[80] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males.[81][82][83][84][85]
I’m afraid I have no super cool “secrets” to share and there are no easy shortcuts to increasing your T. If you were expecting some magical potion or supplement or weird body hack that will instantly and naturally increase your T levels, what follows is bound to disappoint. Despite what some companies or websites might tell you, there’s no single thing that will boost your testosterone naturally for the long term.
Bhatia et al (2006) studied 70 male patients with type2 diabetes mellitus (age range 24–78 years). Thirty-seven subjects were found to have hypogonadism based on a calculated free testosterone level of less than 6.5 μg/dl. The hypogonadal group had a statistically significant lower hematocrit. Anemia was observed in 23% of the patients (16 out of 70). In 14 of 15 anemic patients calculated free testosterone was low.
This supplement is not only marketed to increase sexual desire, but the manufacturer also claims this testosterone booster can accelerate muscle growth, build endurance and decrease muscle pain after workouts. The main ingredient in the product is 25 mg of zinc. Additional ingredients include a proprietary blend of ginkgo biloba, cayenne pepper, tribulis terristris and maca. Recommended dosage is three capsules taken on a daily basis as a dietary supplement.
The rise in testosterone levels during competition predicted aggression in males but not in females.[86] Subjects who interacted with hand guns and an experimental game showed rise in testosterone and aggression.[87] Natural selection might have evolved males to be more sensitive to competitive and status challenge situations and that the interacting roles of testosterone are the essential ingredient for aggressive behaviour in these situations.[88] Testosterone produces aggression by activating subcortical areas in the brain, which may also be inhibited or suppressed by social norms or familial situations while still manifesting in diverse intensities and ways through thoughts, anger, verbal aggression, competition, dominance and physical violence.[89] Testosterone mediates attraction to cruel and violent cues in men by promoting extended viewing of violent stimuli.[90] Testosterone specific structural brain characteristic can predict aggressive behaviour in individuals.[91]
It’s worth emphasizing that these supplements are totally legit. They’re NOT steroids. Meaning, only the natural and harmless ingredients have been used to make these products, which can help the guys dealing with the low testosterone problems, such as low energy, fatigue, muscle loss, irritability, and similar. Usually, the guys tend to start experience these problems in their late 20s and in some cases in their early 30s.

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression".[78][79] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible.[78] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game.[80] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males.[81][82][83][84][85]
A team led by Dr. Joel Finkelstein at Massachusetts General Hospital investigated testosterone and estradiol levels in 400 healthy men, 20 to 50 years of age. To control hormone levels, the researchers first gave the participants injections of a drug that suppressed their normal testosterone and estradiol production. The men were randomly assigned to 5 groups that received different amounts (from 0 to 10 grams) of a topical 1% testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. Half of the participants were also given a drug to block testosterone from being converted to estradiol.

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Clinical trials of the effect of testosterone on glucose metabolism in men have occurred in diabetic and non-diabetic populations. Data specific to aging males is not available. A series of studies investigated the effects of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone given for 6 weeks or 3 months to middle aged, non-diabetic obese men (Marin, Holmang et al 1992; Marin, Krotkiewski et al 1992; Marin et al 1993). It was found that physiological treatment doses led to improved insulin resistance, as measured by the gold standard technique using a euglycemic clamp and/or serum glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance test. These improvements were associated with decreased central obesity, measured by computered tomography (CT) or waist-hip ratio, without reduced total fat mass. Insulin resistance improved more with testosterone than dihydrotestosterone treatment and beneficial effects were greater in men with lower baseline testosterone levels. Increasing testosterone levels into the supraphysiological range lead to decreased glucose tolerance.
Scientists in Italy found that subjects who consumed roughly 3 grams of D-AA for 12 days observed a 42 percent increase in testosterone levels.[12] The researchers also noted that the D-AA group still had 22 percent more testosterone than the placebo group three days after they stopped supplementing. Conversely, a more recent article published in Nutrition Research found no increase in testosterone levels in resistance-trained males after supplementing with 3 grams of D-AA for 28 days.[13]
The illegal testosterone supplements give immediate results and can be obtained without a prescription. However, it is strongly recommended to avoid these boosters as they contain an anabolic steroid, which is harmful to the body. The legal kinds of them are the best testosterone supplements and are considered as safe and efficient for muscle growth and to increase sex drive, but they are also not completely devoid of adverse effects. There are many side effects associated with the use of these testosterone therapy. The natural testosterone boosters are the safest and highly recommended testosterone supplements.
The hormone also plays a role in sex drive, sperm production, fat distribution, red cell production, and maintenance of muscle strength and mass, according to the Mayo Clinic. For these reasons, testosterone is associated with overall health and well-being in men. One 2008 study published in the journal Frontiers of Hormone Research even linked testosterone to the prevention of osteoporosis in men.
Most Americans today are sleep deprived, which may be a contributing factor to declining testosterone levels in men. See, our body makes nearly all the testosterone it needs for the day while we’re sleeping. That increased level of T that we experience at night is one of the reasons we wake up with “Morning Wood.” (If you don’t have Morning Wood on a consistent basis, you might have low T).
Michael T. Murray, ND, is widely regarded as one of the leading authorities on natural medicine. He is the author of many books, including the classic Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. His latest book is What the Drug Companies Won’t Tell You and Your Doctor Doesn’t Know. Visit him online at doctormurray.com.   Article Courtesy of Better Nutrition  
The testosterone supplements are primarily used to enhance the body muscle mass. Various studies have shown that testosterone therapy is also crucial in development of the memory as well as concentration, increase the level of energy, and increase libido or sexual desire. However, use of high levels of testosterone booster can also contribute to the development of certain medical conditions and health problems. Two types are available on the market, legal boosters, and illegal boosters. There are also certain excellent natural testosterone boosters that are efficient and so not have side effects.
"The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism" published that males who switched from a high-fat diet to a low-fat diet also saw a decrease in their testosterone levels. If you want to put some fat back into your diet without fearing cardiac implications, plant-based saturated fat like coconut is just the ticket. Meat-based fat is also acceptable if kept to less than 10% of your dietary fat intake.

A little goes a long way for men, but clinically many men do well with 5 to 10 mg of a topical progesterone cream at bedtime, again, only under your doctor’s supervision. Arginine is important for nitric oxide (NO) production and should be taken twice daily. I've also been recommending Testoplex™ for years. It's Xymogen’s formulation—featuring mungbean sprout powder—to address healthy testosterone levels and provide support for libido and overall vitality.


This supplement is not only marketed to increase sexual desire, but the manufacturer also claims this testosterone booster can accelerate muscle growth, build endurance and decrease muscle pain after workouts. The main ingredient in the product is 25 mg of zinc. Additional ingredients include a proprietary blend of ginkgo biloba, cayenne pepper, tribulis terristris and maca. Recommended dosage is three capsules taken on a daily basis as a dietary supplement.
Next, while testosterone levels do decline with age, this may simply be because the older that men get, the less they take care of themselves – they stop exercising, start putting on weight, and don’t pay as much attention to their diet. A recent study suggests that age-related T decline is not inevitable, and that if you keep living a healthy lifestyle, you can maintain healthy testosterone levels. So if you’re an older guy, try to do all you can as far as lifestyle changes before you get on the prescription T. I don’t mean doing a little cardio a few times a week, using the machines at the gym, and eating “pretty” healthy. Follow the guidelines above, and see what happens first.
Have you ever wondered why? When we are under stress, our body produces cortisol that is bad for our testosterone levels. This particular component blocks the production of testosterone. In addition, if there is a lack of Z’s then this is the bad news for your testosterone. You should know that the huge amounts of testosterone are produced during our sleep. Every guy knows that the “morning wood” comes only after a good night sleep.
It's not enough just to increase the testosterone your body produces, because as we age, the testosterone we naturally produce is often bound by SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) thus becoming unavailable for use in the body. It’s imperative that your testosterone remains unbound or “free” if you want to enjoy all the wonderful benefits testosterone provides.

Many clinical studies have looked at the effect of testosterone treatment on body composition in hypogonadal men or men with borderline low testosterone levels. Some of these studies specifically examine these changes in older men (Tenover 1992; Morley et al 1993; Urban et al 1995; Sih et al 1997; Snyder et al 1999; Kenny et al 2001; Ferrando et al 2002; Steidle et al 2003; Page et al 2005). The data from studies, on patients from all age groups, are consistent in showing an increase in fat free mass and decrease in fat mass or visceral adiposity with testosterone treatment. A recent meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials of testosterone treatment effects on body composition confirms this pattern (Isidori et al 2005). There have been less consistent results with regard to the effects of testosterone treatment of muscle strength. Some studies have shown an increase in muscle strength (Ferrando et al 2002; Page et al 2005) with testosterone whilst others have not (Snyder et al 1999). Within the same trial some muscle group strengths may improve whilst others do not (Ly et al 2001). It is likely that the differences are partly due to the methodological variations in assessing strength, but it also possible that testosterone has different effects on the various muscle groups. The meta-analysis found trends toward significant improvements in dominant knee and hand grip strength only (Isidori et al 2005).

The hypogonadal-obesity-adipocytokine cycle hypothesis. Adipose tissue contains the enzyme aromatase which metabolises testosterone to oestrogen. This results in reduced testosterone levels, which increase the action of lipoprotein lipase and increase fat mass, thus increasing aromatisation of testosterone and completing the cycle. Visceral fat also promotes lower testosterone levels by reducing pituitary LH pulse amplitude via leptin and/or other factors. In vitro studies have shown that leptin also inhibits testosterone production directly at the testes. Visceral adiposity could also provide the link between testosterone and insulin resistance (Jones 2007).


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In males, testosterone is synthesized primarily in Leydig cells. The number of Leydig cells in turn is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In addition, the amount of testosterone produced by existing Leydig cells is under the control of LH, which regulates the expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.[128]

Michael T. Murray, ND, is widely regarded as one of the leading authorities on natural medicine. He is the author of many books, including the classic Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. His latest book is What the Drug Companies Won’t Tell You and Your Doctor Doesn’t Know. Visit him online at doctormurray.com.   Article Courtesy of Better Nutrition  
Infertility in men and women Infertility or a couple being unable to conceive a child can cause significant stress and unhappiness. There are numerous reasons for both male and female infertility but many ways in which medical assistance can overcome problems that people may face. Everything concerning infertility is discussed and explained here. Read now
Likewise, the amino acids in a protein-rich diet play a big role in both testosterone and muscle growth. As Chris Lockwood, Ph.D., explains, "When combined with training, which increases the sensitivity of androgen receptors, and the consumption of essential amino acids necessary to support protein synthesis, the effects of testosterone on muscle and performance is significantly amplified."[3,4]
To reduce excess estrogens and weight gain (since fat stores estrogen), I suggest increasing fiber to assist with detox, as well as bumping up nutrients known to be good estrogen detoxifiers like methylated B12, betaine, choline, and methylated folate. These types of nutrients are referred to as methyl donors and help with estrogen metabolism and detoxification.

Testosterone is a vital hormone for men, but just like estrogen in women, it goes down as you age. This is a natural process that has many drawbacks. In men, testosterone is responsible for hair growth, bone density, proper weight distribution, sex drive, muscle mass, red cell production, and so much more. But did you know that you can actually increase your testosterone levels as opposed to letting them dwindle?
Why bother with such common micronutrients? Because it's not uncommon for athletes to suffer from zinc and magnesium deficiencies, partly due to inadequate replenishing of levels after intense bouts of exercise. Deficiencies in these key minerals can lead to a poor anabolic hormone profile, impaired immune function, and increased cortisol, ultimately leading to decreases in strength and performance.[6]
Recent reports have revealed that there may be an unaired episode of the hit series Shark Tank in which a new testosterone supplement landed the biggest deal in the show's history! Supposedly, two sisters from Korea, Angela and Yoojin Kim, had created an innovative supplement that promotes muscle growth and resolves erectile dysfunction! Inside sources say that when they presented their product to the Sharks, it got an overwhelming response!
Keep more weapons in your arsenal: Occasionally use lifting methods like forced reps, negatives, and dropsets to further stress your body. Personal trainer and fitness journalist Michael Berg explains in "6 Ways to Crank Up Your Testosterone Levels" that going beyond muscular failure with these techniques has been shown to pump up T-levels in study subjects.[16]
The ingredients in testosterone supplements may be different. Some testosterone supplements contain zinc and magnesium. They increase testosterone levels in men who exercise. Some other testosterone supplements have hormones like DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and pregnenolone. They help with making new testosterone and may help improve the ability to have an erection. But it doesn't seem to be helpful if the problem with erections is caused by diabetes or nerve disorders. Some testosterone booster supplements contain natural ingredients like herbs and botanicals. They may increase testosterone by increasing a hormone produced by the brain, which signals the testicles to produce more testosterone. In addition, others work by releasing bound testosterone, so it is in a form the body can use. Studies do not provide strong evidence that women benefit from taking these supplements. You need to talk to your doctor or pharmacist before starting a testosterone booster supplement. Discuss your medical history and current prescribed medications, over the counter medications, and any supplements that you are taking. Your doctor or pharmacist can tell you if a testosterone booster supplement is right for you. Once you know if a testosterone booster supplement is right for you, Walgreens has a variety of testosterone booster supplements to choose from and they come in different forms like tablets, capsules or gels.
Herbalists have used _Trifolium pratense_, red clover, to treat menopausal symptoms like hot flashes. The mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. Testosterone decreases hot flashes in some postmenopausal women, so red clover may work in this way. A 2015 paper in the Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine reviewed the literature testing this idea.
Present in much greater levels in men than women, testosterone initiates the development of the male internal and external reproductive organs during foetal development and is essential for the production of sperm in adult life. This hormone also signals the body to make new blood cells, ensures that muscles and bones stay strong during and after puberty and enhances libido both in men and women. Testosterone is linked to many of the changes seen in boys during puberty (including an increase in height, body and pubic hair growth, enlargement of the penis, testes and prostate gland, and changes in sexual and aggressive behaviour). It also regulates the secretion of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. To effect these changes, testosterone is often converted into another androgen called dihydrotestosterone. 
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